California Privacy Statement, PubMed Central  Yu G-A, Brierley G, Huang HQ, Wang Z, Blue B, Ma Y. J Biogeogr. Planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotopes are used to investigate the history of past sea surface temperatures, revealing the extent of past ‘greenhouse’ warming and global sea surface temperatures. 2011;47:W12531. 3), indicating that diatoms possess diverse light-regulatory mechanisms and adaptive responses [57]. This great expanse displays an even greater diversity in terms of the physical conditions of the different regions within it, and also the aquatic plants and animals found there. Spatially, the annual-averaged PAR exhibits four stages along the Yangtze River [35], i.e., the highest in the upper reach located in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region (above 32 mol m−2 d−1), the higher in the reach located in the Hengduan Mountains, the lowest in the reach located in the Sichuan Basin (below 23 mol m− d−1), and the moderate in the lower reach (Fig. In March (spring) and October (autumn) of 2014, water and sediment samples were synchronously (i.e., within 1 week) collected for planktonic and benthic diatom identification at 50 national monitoring stations (the non-plateau area) along the mainstream and six major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Figure S15. JWW, QXL, JRN, and AGLB wrote the paper. Planktotrophic development is the most common type of larval development, especially among benthic invertebrates. Biogeographical distribution of diatoms at class level throughout the mainstream of the Yangtze for: (a) water-spring, (b) water-autumn, (c) sediment-spring, and (d) sediment-autumn samples. Depauw FA, Rogato A, D’Alcalá MR, Falciatore A. DNA was extracted in triplicate using the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. At each sampling site, 10 L of well-mixed water was collected and then filtered onto 0.22 μm polycarbonate membranes (Millipore, USA) within 24 h. Filter membranes and sediment samples were stored in the laboratory at – 80 °C until further analysis took place. To estimate the community structure for each site, the Mothur program [76] was used to normalize all data sets with respect to the least-well-represented data set (11049 sequences). Soininen et al. In the upper reaches (stations 3~14), the channel slope has dropped sharply to 10–30 × 10−5. A completed description on biogeographic pattern over a large river requires to identify the difference in diatom compositions among different types of samples and their spatiotemporal heterogeneity. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Although both light and temperature are essential for diatom growth, planktonic and benthic diatoms exhibit different preferences for PAR and water temperature. We built a reference database of 18S rRNA reads composed of 4573 unique diatom sequences. FastTree 2 - approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. For example, Centis et al. [54] indicated that anammox bacterial abundance and alpha diversity are spatially subject to landform variations. Although planktonic and benthic communities of the three lakes were mainly composed of the same groups of uncultured archaea, differences in their relative composition were large enough to segregate communities from both habitats in a 2D space with low stress (0.12, Fig. We do not implement these annoying types of ads! Orange and blue circles display the average alpha-diversity (Chao1) of planktonic and benthic diatoms respectively in different photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) regions, and their sizes correspond to the Chao1 index (c). In riverine ecosystems, both planktonic and benthic algae are the important components of primary producers. Kitner M, Poulíčková A. Littoral diatoms as indicators for the eutrophication of shallow lakes. • No photosynthetic organism can be found in the benthic region; it is dominated by detritivores and scavengers. Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. We extended these guilds by adding supplemented classifications used in other studies [79, 80]. In the non-plateau area, no significant differences were observed in the alpha richness and diversity of diatom communities in the four sample types. For each sampling sites, longitude, latitude, and altitude were recorded by a handheld GPS (Magellan, USA). First, it has been reported that sufficient PAR drives the growth and production of diatoms [55], but excess PAR can affect various cellular processes and reduce the growth or viability of diatoms [56]. Malviya S, Scalco E, Audic S, Vincent F, Veluchamy A, Poulain J, et al.,, Oeding S, Taffs KH. 2011;91:526–35. We don't have any banner, Flash, animation, obnoxious sound, or popup ad. 2014;50:335–46. We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising. Relationships between community similarity and river channel slope for water-spring (a), water-autumn (b), sediment-spring (c), and sediment-autumn (d) samples. A set of spatial variables was generated through the use of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM) analysis based on the longitude and latitude coordinates of each sampling site [78]. Borcard D, Legendre P. All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices. Typical benthic diatoms (e.g., Nitzschia and Navicula) were found in high abundance in the water column. 2009;75:7537–41. Variation in community composition explained by environmental, spatial, and spatially structured environmental components. 2018;11:27–37. Meanwhile, Navicula, Pinnularia, and Cyclotella became the dominant genera, represented 14.4, 9.1, and 6.9% of total sequences, respectively, in sediment samples, in which Navicula was dominant in either sediment-plateau (17.1%), sediment-autumn (13.1%), or sediment-spring samples (13.2%). The effect of temperature and mixed species composition on diatom motility and adhesion. Planktotrophic larvae feed on phytoplankton and small zooplankton, including other larvae. HTS is of particular use in detecting nano-sized diatoms (2–20 μm) in the Yangtze River, confirming the presence of Fragilaria perminuta, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Achnanthidium saprophilum, Amphora pediculus, Fistulifera saprophila, Mayamaea permitis, Sellaphora seminulum, Encyonema minutum, Fragilaria famelica, Fragilaria rumpens, Gomphonema pumilum, Staurosirella pinnata, Planothidium frequentissimum, Craticula buderi, and Craticula molestiformis.